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Knowledge graph: Your key to get insights from big data

A  knowledge graph, is a graph that depicts the relationship between real-world entities, such as objects, events, situations, and concepts. This information is typically stored in a graph database and subsequently represented as a graph structure, which is the basis for the term "knowledge graph."

History of Knowledge Graphs

The concept of knowledge graphs has significantly developed over decades, beginning with the establishment of networks in the 1960s and 1970s.

In the past, early systems were primarily concerned with organizing information in a network of interconnected nodes and edges, similar to the structure of modern knowledge graphs.

The Semantic Web initiative, spearheaded by Tim Berners-Lee in the 1990s and early 2000s, was a pivotal moment in the evolution of knowledge graphs.

This initiative aimed to make online data machine-understandable, introducing standards like RDF (Resource Description Framework) and OWL (Web Ontology Language), which laid the foundation for knowledge graphs as we know them today.

2012 was an important year for knowledge grpahs , which makred the Google's acquisition of Metaweb and Freebase, a substantial dataset of community-gathered information, and the debut of the first large knowledge graph.

By integrating information into search results, Google's Knowledge Graph represented a substantial advancement in adopting knowledge graphs.

The introduction of knowledge graphs, was a game-changer.

It allowed users to search for objects, individuals, or locations that Google is aware of, such as landmarks, celebrities, cities, sports teams, structures, geographical features, movies, celestial objects, works of art, and more, and to receive information that is pertinent to their inquiry immediately.

This user-centric approach has been a key driver of the popularity and success of knowledge graphs.  

In 2013, Facebook introduced its graph search, similar to Google's approach. It presents a virtual graph that incorporates pre-compiled data on topics and entities. 

Today, knowledge graphs are a cornerstone of operations for major technology companies like Amazon, Microsoft, and Facebook. These companies leverage knowledge graphs across various sectors, including finance and healthcare.

The rapid evolution and implementation of knowledge graphs are further propelled by advancements in AI, machine learning, and big data.

Working of a knowledge graph

Information about entities of interest in a specific domain or task (such as persons, locations, or events) is captured, and knowledge graphs establish connections between them by organizing data from various sources.

In the disciplines of artificial intelligence and data science, knowledge graphs are frequently implemented to:

1. Facilitate the integration and access of data sources

2. Enhance the context and profundity of other AI techniques that are more data-driven, such as machine learning

3. Act as intermediaries between humans and systems, for example, by producing comprehensible explanations to humans or, on a larger scale, by facilitating the development of intelligent systems for scientists and engineers.

To ensure data structuring and create a knowledge graph, one needs to define the ontology or schema, which delineates the categories of entities and relationships and the rules that govern them.

Natural language processing techniques are used to extract entities and relationships from data, such as text documents, and populate the graph with information from various sources is essential.

A knowledge graph operates by applying a reasoner to derive new knowledge. It organizes and integrates data based on an ontology, which serves as the schema of the knowledge graph.

Knowledge graphs can be created from scratch by domain experts, acquired from unstructured or semi-structured data sources, or assembled from preexisting knowledge graphs. These processes are typically supported by various semi-automatic or automated data validation and integration mechanisms.

Everyday use cases in data science involve adding identifiers and descriptions to data of multiple modalities to facilitate sense-making, integration, and explainable analysis.

In the field of artificial intelligence, knowledge graphs serve as a complement to machine learning techniques to

a. Diminish the necessity for extensive, labeled datasets;

b. Enhance explainability and transmit learning;

c. Encode domain, task, and application knowledge that would be expensive to acquire through data alone.

Key characteristics of a knowledge graph

The unique characteristic of a knowledge graph is that, in contrast to a conventional database, which is populated and subsequently remains inactive, it is intended to repurpose itself and offer new insights and inferences.

The ontology is easily "extended and revised as new data arrives" due to its representation in a graphical format. A knowledge graph is dynamic in that it can recognize the connections between entities, thereby eliminating the necessity of explicitly programming each new piece of information.

Knowledge graphs typically comprise datasets from various sources, often exhibiting varying structures. This collaborative approach to data structuring, through the interaction of schemas, identities, and context, ensures a comprehensive and diverse knowledge base.

The framework for the knowledge graph is provided by schemas, identities adequately classify the underlying nodes, and the context determines the setting in which that knowledge exists. These components distinguish words with multiple meanings.

This collaborative process enables products, such as Google's search engine algorithm, to differentiate between Apple, the brand, and Apple, the product, thereby involving the users in the knowledge creation and sharing process.

Details of Knowledge Graph

A knowledge graph comprises three primary components: nodes, edges, and labels. A node can be any person, place, or object. An edge defines the relationship between the nodes.

Graph databases, including Neo4j and Amazon Neptune, are different from databases in that they are designed to facilitate the storage and querying of graph structures. They provide a framework for effectively managing the interconnected character of knowledge graphs.

Machine learning algorithms enhance knowledge graphs by improving entity recognition, deducing relationships, and facilitating predictive analytics. AI-driven methodologies facilitate the evolution and improvement of knowledge graphs over time.

Examples from Industry :

Numerous consumer-facing knowledge graphs are influencing user expectations for enterprise search systems. Some of these knowledge graphs are as follows:

• Wikidata and DBPedia are two distinct knowledge graphs that display data on Wikipedia.org. Wikidata concentrates on secondary and tertiary objects, whereas DBPedia comprises data from Wikipedia's infoboxes. Both are typically published in an RDF format.  

• The Google Knowledge Graph is exemplified by Google Search Engine Results Pages (SERPs), which provide information based on users' search terms. This knowledge graph comprises over 500 million objects derived from various sources, including the CIA World Factbook, Wikipedia, and Freebase.

Semantic enrichment is the process of knowledge graphs powered by machine learning, constructing a comprehensive view of nodes, edges, and labels using natural language processing.

This process enables knowledge graphs to recognize individual objects and comprehend the relationships between various objects when data is assimilated.

This working knowledge is subsequently compared and integrated with other pertinent and similar datasets. Upon completion of a knowledge graph, it enables question-answering and search systems to retrieve and reuse exhaustive responses to specified queries.

Although consumer products exhibit the capacity to save time, the same systems can also be implemented in a business environment to eliminate manual data capture and integration work, thereby facilitating business decision-making.

The data integration efforts surrounding knowledge graphs can also facilitate the establishment of new knowledge, as they establish connections between data elements that may not have been previously recognized.

Organizations that have developed certain knowledge graphs primarily use these graphs. One of the most prevalent examples is the Google knowledge graph, employed in web search, or Amazon's product graph. Additional knowledge graphs are publicly accessible. DBpedia, Wikidata, WordNet, Geonames, and others are among them.

Knowledge graphs has applications across industries.

Search engines employ knowledge graphs to generate more pertinent and contextually rich search results.

For example, Google's Knowledge Graph lets users obtain comprehensive information about entities on the search results page.

Recommendation Systems: Knowledge graphs enhance recommendation systems by connecting users to pertinent content based on their preferences and actions. Platforms like Netflix and Amazon employ this technology to suggest products, services, and movies.

Healthcare: Knowledge graphs are utilized in the healthcare sector to facilitate the discovery of drugs, personalized medication, and decision-making by consolidating data from various sources. They contribute to comprehending the relationships between patient outcomes, treatments, and diseases.

Finance: Financial institutions employ knowledge graphs to analyze market trends, identify misconduct, and reduce risks. By connecting data locations, institutions can reveal concealed trends and gain insights that improve the effectiveness of decision-making processes.

Customer Support: Knowledge graphs enhance customer support systems by providing agents with information about clients and their concerns. This reduces the time required to resolve issues and increases customer satisfaction.

Enterprise Data Management: Organizations utilize knowledge graphs to supervise and integrate their data across departments. This comprehensive viewpoint enables the optimization of operations, the facilitation of decision-making, and the guarantee of data coherence.

Knowledge diagrams are instrumental in the efficient organization and utilization of data. They are revolutionizing the way information is accessible and utilized in various sectors by merging data streams and providing insights that are customized to specific contexts.

In the current big data environment, the significance of knowledge graphs will be further solidified by expanding their functionalities and applications as technology advances.

Industries Employing Knowledge Graphs

 1. Medical Care

Knowledge graphs are revolutionizing patient care, drug discovery, and medical research in the healthcare sector. Graphs enable healthcare professionals and researchers to identify complex relationships between diseases, treatments, and patient outcomes by incorporating data sources such as health records, medical literature, and genomic data knowledge.

For instance, they identify drug interactions, predict disease epidemics, and individualize treatment plans based on genetic profiles and patient histories.

2. Financial Services

The financial sector utilizes knowledge graphs for regulatory compliance, fraud detection, and risk management.

Knowledge graphs integrate information from statements, market analyses, and transaction records to facilitate the identification of fraudulent activities, the practical evaluation of credit risks, and the adherence to regulatory standards.

Additionally, they assist in the refinement of trading strategies by revealing trends and relationships within market data.

The banking and finance sector is accountable for managing critical transactional and customer data. They must monitor their customers' behavior and money flow to prevent unauthorized transactions.

The finance industry has been blessed by the emergence of knowledge graphs, which provide a secure method of administering its financial knowledge base. Goldman Sachs is a banking institution that employs transaction and customer analysis knowledge graphs.

Knowledge graphs are employed in various financial applications in addition to analysis.

A. Transaction surveillance: Banks can investigate and monitor how money is transferred between users using a semantic financial information network. Consequently, they acquire a more comprehensive comprehension of their users' conduct and a comprehensive perspective on their clientele.

B. Financial crime detection and prevention: Banks can detect or predict unauthorized transactions by monitoring banking information with a centralized view. Knowledge graphs safeguard banks against financial offenses like money laundering, corruption, and fraud.

C. Non-compliant user detection: Analyzing user behavior is crucial to understanding consumers. In addition to consumer personalization, knowledge graphs enable banks to identify customers who are not adhering to their policies, allowing them to take prompt action against them.

3. Electronic commerce

Knowledge graphs enhance search capabilities, optimize product recommendations, and simplify inventory control processes in e-commerce. By establishing connections between consumer behaviors, product features, and purchasing patterns personalized shopping experiences are facilitated by knowledge graphs, which enable customers to locate products with simplicity.

Nowadays, organizations like Amazon employ knowledge graphs to suggest products customized to customers' preferences, increasing sales and improving customer satisfaction.

4. Entertainment and Media

Knowledge graphs improve content recommendations and user engagement in the media and entertainment industry.

Netflix and other streaming platforms, such as Spotify, use knowledge graphs to recommend movies, TV programs, and music that align with users' viewing habits and interests. This not only improves the user experience but also increases the rate of content consumption and retention.

5. Telecommunications

Telecommunications organizations implement knowledge graphs to optimize their marketing strategies, network administration, and customer service.

By incorporating customer data, service utilization patterns, and network performance metrics into knowledge graphs, telecom providers can personalize customer interactions, forecast service disruptions, and optimize targeted marketing campaigns for outcomes.

The evolution of knowledge graphs is driven by the growing demand for real-time data processing to manage streaming data effectively. This ability is essential for industries such as finance, where immediate insights are critical for decision-making, and for telecommunications, where real-time network monitoring can prevent disruptions.

As knowledge graphs continue to develop, they will expand into new domains, including autonomous systems, cities, and the Internet of Things (IoT).

They can combine data from city municipal systems to improve public safety, energy distribution, and traffic management. In applications, knowledge graphs will facilitate the management and analysis of data from devices, thereby enabling the development of more intelligent and effective systems.

Future developments will prioritize improving interoperability between data systems and knowledge graphs. Standardization efforts will facilitate data exchange and assimilation across platforms, fostering innovation and collaboration.

This interoperability will be critical in industries such as healthcare, where integrating data from various sources is essential for providing comprehensive patient care.

Summary :

In summary, knowledge graphs revolutionize how industries manage and leverage their data.

Knowledge graphs significantly influence the finance, healthcare, e-commerce, and telecommunications industries.

The functionality of knowledge graphs is anticipated to expand further as AI advancements, real-time data analysis, and interoperability improvements continue. The future could integrate knowledge graphs across sectors, increasing their importance in operational effectiveness, customization efforts, and decision-making processes.

In this digital era, knowledge graphs are poised to become an indispensable instrument by transforming data into insights.

 

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Raktim Singh
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Raktim Singh

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Infosys

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