Councils in Sydney, Australia (and other cities) are tracking trash, with RFID chips (like 'smart' cards) being placed on rubbish bins and bins being weighed during the collection process. This provides the council with a record of exactly how much waste
is coming out of your household.
Councils say that it isn't to help with the 'war on terror', it's all about the 'war on global warming' (WOGWar?) and it helps them spot households who need to be re-educated about recycling.
It will also allow councils to charge by the kilo for rubbish removal (in the future).
Residents are noticably suspicious seeing that the councils didn't notify anyone first.
I expect it's the best use I've seen for 'smart' cards, I always said they belonged in the bin.