Visa, Mastercard, American Express, PayPal and Amazon all look to have failed to meet the deadline to comply with new rules that require information about transactions in India to be stored in the country.
According to the New York Times, the American firms have asked for more time to meet the new Reserve Bank of India data localisation rules, which were announced in April and came into force on Tuesday.
Visa and others say that they have not had time to redesign their fraud detection and processing systems, which are scattered around the world, to meet the new rule.
They have offered to store copies of the data in India but, according to the Times, the RBI has not been placated, threatening to impose fines for the missed deadline.
With its new rule, India is following in the footsteps of Russia and China, and says it wants to "ensure better monitoring" of data.